Surprisingly, now zinc failed to cause the ACh current to increase, and after the three substances had been transiently co-applied the ACh current recovery was very slow. The inhibition of nAChRs would be increased further by 5-HT,9, 10 whose concentration is raised by the inhibitory action of fluoxetine on the 5-HT transporter.34. Dr. Deans, could you write about the issue of low zinc and depression and people who have experienced a brain injury? Furthermore, zinc enhances the effect of antidepressants in animal models of depression32 and zinc supplementation seems to increase the efficacy of antidepressant therapy in patients with unipolar depression.33 In the present study, we examine the effects of exposing nAChRs to the simultaneous action of zinc and fluoxetine. Nowak G, Schlegel-Zawadzka M . García-Colunga J, Awad JN, Miledi R . Zinc is a trace element that has been long implicated in … Do you think this finding was a fluke, or do you have an idea why this might be? the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of zinc in mice. You should not use Prozac if you are allergic to fluoxetine, if you also take pimozide or thioridazine. The authors seem to brush this off as of no importance, but I find it strange that this would be the only nutrient found to be low if dietary choices were to blame for the deficiency. (b) Control I–V relationship (ACh: b–a), obtained by subtracting the current ramp in normal solution (a) to that in the presence of ACh (b), the I–V relationship for the potentiated ACh current by zinc (Zn2+: c–a), and the ratio of the potentiated ACh current to the control ACh current. Dry Mouth. Pol J Pharmacol 2003; 55: 1143–1147. If we want to get down to the super nitty gritty, we can examine the role of zinc in the hippocampus, which is the part of the brain central to memory and mood. 8 Reasons to Try Low-Carb for Mental Health. A different sequence is illustrated in Figure 1b, where the ACh current was first inhibited by fluoxetine (Figure 1b, a), and then zinc was added (Figure 1b, b). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 2919–2923. ... What are the health benefits of zinc … What role does zinc play? Early research suggests that taking zinc twice daily along with the drug fluoxetine for 8 weeks reduces OCD symptoms slightly more than taking fluoxetine alone. Modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by zinc. The effects of simultaneous applications of the three substances were less marked and the recovery, after stopping the third (fluoxetine or zinc, Figure 2), was greater than that seen for the neuronal receptors. Co-application of zinc and fluoxetine on muscle nAChRs. Their more detailed study may help understand the bases of the various forms of depression and of the unwanted side effects, all of which will lead to more rational treatments for these devastating diseases. While beans and grains also contain zinc depending on the soils in which they are grown, phytates in grains, legumes, and nuts can interfere with its absorption. Assaf SY, Chung SH . Records were from different oocytes. Your take on the connections between low zinc levels, depression, and brain injury would be most informative. In contrast, central nAChRs are predominantly presynaptic and modulate the release of various neurotransmitters: for example, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine.3, The nAChRs are relatively nonselective cation channels opened by ACh, and belong to the same gene superfamily that includes GABAA, GABAC, glycine and 5-HT3 receptors.4 Many endogenous and exogenous substances modify the function of nAChRs. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. PROZINC is a protamine zinc insulin -- ideal for diabetic cats -- with a convenient duration of 10-14 hours. Palma E, Maggi L, Miledi R, Eusebi F . These medications are not usually taken together. Proc R Soc Lond 1982; B215: 491–497. Twelve patients were given fluoxetine (20 mg/d) plus zinc (440 mg/d) and 11 patients were given fluoxetine plus placebo for 8 wk. ISSN 1473-1150 (online), Combined actions of zinc and fluoxetine on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, Effects of the antidepressant mirtazapine and zinc on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, Molybdenum bupropion combined neurotoxicity in rats, Zinc, future mono/adjunctive therapy for depression: Mechanisms of antidepressant action, A three-photon probe with dual emission colors for imaging of Zn(ii) ions in living cells, Potential roles of zinc in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 1848–1856. BUT, that isn’t the worst of it…Magnesium works best with zinc an vitamin B6 – but Prozac depletes those nutrients as well!! PubMed Google Scholar. However, the active ingredients in some herbs can interact with … Hennings ECP, Kiss JP, De Oliveira K, Toth PT, Vizi ES . It is clear: (a) that both zinc and antidepressants interact with nAChRs, (b) that these two substances are intimately related with depression and its treatment and (c) that nAChRs are involved in such disorders as anxiety and mental depression. He would like to quit and has tried many times unsuccessfully. Google Scholar. García-Colunga J, Awad JN, Miledi R . Opposite effects of lanthanum on different types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. How Do Dreams Change Throughout a Night of Sleep? Zn2+: an endogenous modulator of ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels. and JavaScript. Release of endogenous Zn2+ from brain tissue during activity. It seems plausible that some folks will have some genetic or gut issues in absorbing zinc and may need higher doses to maintain blood levels and be healthy. These differences may be due to the drugs acting on molecular sites, already present on the various subunits that make up the receptors, and possibly also at new sites that may be uncovered by the action of the drugs applied previously. Records (a) and (b) were obtained from one oocyte. Moreover, when ACh-activated nAChRs were exposed first to fluoxetine and then zinc was added, the potentiating effect of zinc was very small for muscle nAChRs and was nil for neuronal receptors. In contrast, 5 μM fluoxetine reduced the ACh currents to 31% for α4β4 and to 45% for α1β1γδ nAChRs. Mol Psychiatry 2002; 7: 525–535. I have a question that relates to zinc and the brain. Effects of fluoxetine on wild and mutant neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors. Consult your healthcare professional (e.g., doctor or pharmacist) for more in formation. The preparation of RNA and oocyte injection have been described elsewhere.10, 16 Briefly, cRNAs encoding the mouse muscle (α1, β1, γ and δ) and rat neuronal (α4 and β4) nAChR subunits were transcribed in vitro and mixtures, with equal quantities of RNA subunits, were prepared to express α1β1γδ and α4β4 combinations. All the I–V relations showed that the equilibrium potential remained unaltered (ca. But, it is news to me that a brain injury can leave one with a leaky gut (who knew?) Biomed Res 1997; 18: 307–311. This caused the ACh current to increase to 361±13% (n=5). (I am aware of the work of Dr. Datis Kharrazian in this field; I have yet to read his new book.) Levin ED . As might antidepressants, GABA receptor modulators, and other neuroprotective chemicals. The calibration bars apply to all records. Nowak G, Siwek M, Dudek D, Zieba A, Pilc A . The ACh current potentiation by zinc was associated with an increase in membrane conductance, whereas the ACh current inhibition by fluoxetine was associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. … Additionally, zinc increased slightly the ACh current in the presence of fluoxetine on muscle α1β1γδ nAChRs (Figure 2b, c, d, c), while the ACh current elicited by neuronal receptors was not altered (Figure 1b, c). Serotonergic modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Synaptic transmission 100 years after Luigi Luciani. We more or less follow the paleo diet, but I have tried to research a bit on nutritional supplements that might be helpful. J Nutr 2000; 130 (Suppl): 1471S–1483S. However I haven’t seen any evidence that a major part of the general population may have this affliction. As fluoxetine nullifies the effects of zinc, it appears that both substances interact in the same site. Xenopus laevis oocytes were manually dissected from segments of ovary, defolliculated with collagenase41 and maintained at 16°C in Barth's solution containing (in mM): 88 NaCl, 1 KCl, 0.33 Ca(NO3)2, 0.41 CaCl2, 0.82 MgSO4, 2.4 NaHCO3, 5 HEPES (pH 7.4; NaOH), and 0.1 mg/ml gentamicin sulfate. These results should help understand better the roles played by zinc, antidepressants, nAChRs and their combination in brain functions and in the treatment of depression. *In a side note, when one is writing about zinc, there is always the question of Pyroluria, or a specific metabolic issue with absorbing and processing zinc (often in association with issues of vitamin B6). Duration and Dose of zinc supplement: Results: Novak et al. So there are clear mechanisms by which absolute zinc deficiency can have a hand in all sorts of bad brain syndromes, and vegetarians, dieters, the elderly, those with malabsorption or intestinal issues, and the two billion people on the planet who (due to poverty) pretty much subsist on grains alone (rich in zinc-binding phytates) are all at risk for absolute zinc deficiency. It really comforts me to know that there are medical professionals out there still searching for answers that go beyond writing prescriptions (although I realize prescriptions are very helpful to many people). Substance changes were marked by voltage steps, which also monitor membrane conductance changes. Howell GA, Welch MG, Frederickson CJ . García-Colunga J, Miledi R . Read Previous Prozac (Fluoxetine) About Drugs A-Z Drugs A-Z provides drug information from Everyday Health and our partners, as well as ratings from our members, all in one … Thank you for all the research and writing which you do in the psychology & paleo diet fields, as well as your search to assist those with depression. More than 50 mg a day can lead to improper copper metabolism, altered iron function, and reduced immune function. García-Colunga J, Miledi R . Both the onset of the effects and their recovery were slower for fluoxetine than for zinc (cf. Interestingly, after co-application of fluoxetine ceased, the current recovered only slightly (Figure 1a, c–d). Furthermore, the inhibition of the ACh current by fluoxetine was stronger in the presence of zinc, which reached to 19±2% (n=3) of the zinc-potentiated ACh current (Figure 2c, c), than in its absence, to 30±2% (n=3) of the ACh current (Figure 2d, b). A few isolated studies found some benefit from augmenting treatment with creatine, while adding zinc, vitamin C, the amino acid tryptophan and folic acid produced mixed results. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in many complex brain functions such as memory, attention and cognition, as well as in some neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases, schizophrenia, anxiety and depression.1, 2 Fast synaptic cholinergic transmission at the neuromuscular junction and at peripheral nervous system synapses is mediated by postsynaptic nAChRs. The neuropsychologists in general, in my experience (and in the experience of many, many people with brain injuries whom I have assisted as a disability advocate), usually dismiss any talk of diet/food as having anything to do with healing a brain; they focus, rather, only on the neuropsych eval and cognitive therapy. Prozac is the brand name of a widely-used medication known as fluoxetine. Zinc co-localizes with GABA and glycine in synapses in the lamprey spinal cord. Thus, the inhibiting effect of fluoxetine prevails over the potentiating action of zinc. volume 4, pages388–393(2004)Cite this article. Maes M, Vandoolaeghe E, Neels H, Demedts P, Wauters A, Meltzer HY et al. Antidepressant-like properties of zinc in rodent forced swim test. Drinking is a big no-no when taking Prozac. Zinc has been suggested as a possible adjuvant to fluoxetine based on their close antioxidant and neurotrophic profiles (Gower-Winter and Levenson, 2012). Unfortunately, this is way over my head and I can only find that one article showing a measly correlation. Lower serum zinc in major depression is a sensitive marker of treatment resistance and of the immune/inflammatory response in that illness. Both zinc and bupropion interact with nicotinic acetylcholine … So, Prozac is particularly good if you have a tendency towards obsessive or intrusive thoughts. J Neurobiol 2002; 53: 633–640. To obtain Pol J Pharmacol 2003; 55: 455–459. That last bit of information … Effect of zinc supplementation on antidepressant therapy in unipolar depression: a preliminary placebo-controlled study. After reading your article, I'm wondering if marijuana could not be depleting the body of zinc somehow - maybe through its effects on the brain or as a stressor? In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles Effects of clomipramine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A new theory aims to make sense of it all. Biol Trace Elem Res 1999; 67: 85–92. Brain Res Bull 2003; 61: 159–164. For example, after the ACh current had been potentiated by zinc, fluoxetine was added (Figure 1a, b), still in the presence of zinc. Birinyi A, Parker D, Antal M, Shupliakov O . These effects of fluoxetine were also produced by the combined action of 200 μM zinc with 5 μM imipramine or trimipramine on neuronal α3β4 and α4β4 receptors, as well as on muscle α1β1γδ nAChRs (data not shown), indicating that these effects are characteristic of some antidepressant drugs. While Prozac … To rephrase, zinc is a cog in the machine in pretty much every signal and second messenger system you might have learned about in molecular biology classes. Blockage of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by 5-hydroxytryptamine. Wong DT, Bymaster FP, Engleman EA . The central findings of this study are that, at relatively low concentrations, zinc potentiates and fluoxetine inhibits the action of ACh on both neuronal and muscle nAChRs, and that the presence of fluoxetine greatly reduces, or abolishes, the potentiating action of zinc. Blockage of muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by fluoxetine (Prozac). Get the help you need from a therapist near you–a FREE service from Psychology Today. I’ll review some tried and true information, but excellent new paper brings all the evidence together and sheds some new light. Mechanisms contributing to antidepressant zinc actions. Frederickson CJ, Suh SW, Silva D, Frederickson CJ, Thompson RB . What could those be? This same mechanism is thought (in acute vs chronic and in differing areas of the brain) to be responsible for seizures, migraines, dementia, anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder (and is why pharmaceutical GABA receptor modulators, such as valium and anti-seizure medicines, can be effective for certain symptoms of any of those conditions). Nowak G, Szewczyk B, Sadlik K, Piekoszewski W, Trela F, Florek E et al. Picciotto MR, Brunzell DH, Caldarone BJ . #1 Prozac and Alcohol. Fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil) and other selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs can be affected by taking supplements and can affect your ability to absorb certain vitamins and minerals. I appreciate all you do! Zinc and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) seem to be associated with major depression, and some antidepressants, including fluoxetine (Prozac), antagonize nAChRs. Effect of nicotine and nicotinic receptors on anxiety and depression. Cockcroft VB, Ortels M, Lunt GG . ACh currents during co-application of zinc and fluoxetine on neuronal nAChRs. Alterations in serum and brain trace element levels after antidepressant treatment: Part I. Zinc. An inward current was elicited with ACh, and after the peak had been reached 200 μM zinc was co-applied with the ACh (Figure 1a, a). Additionally, in animal models of depression, ineffective doses of antidepressants become effective by co-administration with very low doses of zinc.32, 40 Alternatively, if nAChRs are already interacting with fluoxetine and the concentration of zinc then increases, due to the antidepressant treatment itself,30, 39 zinc fails to exert its potentiating action; presumably because of the marked inhibition of nAChRs by fluoxetine. Harrison NL, Gibbons SJ . Do not use Prozac if you have used an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days. Human brain fluoxetine concentrations. In humans, zinc has been found to be low in the serum of those suffering from depression. Reduced potency of zinc to interact with NMDA receptors in hippocampal tissue of suicide victims. Results: Both groups showed a decrease in the mean Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale score. What should be up is down. Sharma G, Vijayaraghavan S . Viruses, injury, bacterial invasion, angry lion attacking the camp. Mol Psychiatry 2001; 6: 511–519. Vizi ES, Lendvai B . Popik P, Kozela E, Krawczyk M . The highest amount of zinc in the body is found in our brains, particularly in a part of our brains called the hippocampus. On the other hand, it is known that the homeostasis of zinc is altered during depression and its therapy.27, 28 During a successful antidepressant treatment, the levels of zinc are increased in the hippocampus39 and, by itself, zinc exerts antidepressant-like effects.30 Therefore, during treatment for depression, nAChRs are under the simultaneous influence of both zinc and fluoxetine. Zinc is sequestered and … For this and subsequent figures, the oocyte membrane potential was maintained at −60 mV and ACh, zinc and fluoxetine were applied during the times indicated by the continuous, dashed and dotted lines, respectively. Dreams have been described as dress rehearsals for real life, opportunities to gratify wishes, and a form of nocturnal therapy. 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G, Szewczyk B, Sadlik K, Piekoszewski W, Trela,! 8-Hydroxy-2- ( di-n-propylamino ) tetralin ( 8-OH-DPAT ) modulators, and other chemicals., bacterial invasion, angry lion attacking the camp on its own specific dietary contraindications in. Representative record of the cRNA mixture in a part of our brains, particularly in a volume 50. At −60 mV and the brain and … you should not use Prozac if are... Nicotinic receptors on anxiety in Teens, Children with Three Parents: 219–235 levels after antidepressant treatment: part zinc... Bit of information tells us that low zinc also seems to affect inflammation and immunity,... Figure 1, but excellent new paper brings all the Western diaspora of chronic,! Letters ( a–e ) show membrane currents induced by 2 s voltage-ramps ( –120–40 mV ) evidence that a injury... Paleo diet, but excellent new paper brings all the Western diaspora of chronic disease, of.! Support for CSS ) antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine are being revisited stronger. 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